ETR – Eisenbahntechnische Rundschau | Ausgabe International/2015
Current trends in European urban and short-distance rolling stock
The regulatory obligations in the EU impose a major challenge for rolling stock manufacturers. Their implementation tends to reduce the economic efficiency of railway operations. This is offset by technical and manufacturing progress. Some key issues resulting from these contradictory trends will be explained in the following, highlighting solutions in the field of regional and commuter trains, metros and tramways.